José Ramón Díez Guijarro (Bankia Estudios) | In recent years there has been a debate in academic circles about the limits of monetary policy, once the barrier of negative interest rates has been crossed. With the additional problem that not even in Japan, where the natural interest rate has spent practically two decades in negative territory, has the central bank dared to dive deep into the zone of below zero interest rates, even though the economy has been stuck in a deflationary stagnation which has given birth to new economic jargon (japanisation) to refer to this type of economic process. The doubt is whether the Bank of Spain got is wrong by not using monetary policy more intensively or got it right be assessing the risks of traveling in this unknown territory as greater than the possible benefits.
Pablo Pardo (Washington) | Ángel Ubide, who was advisor to Spanish PM Pedro Sánchez between 2015 and 2016, has an enormous experience in financial markets. He has worked in the IMF, Goldman Sachs and three of the largest and best known hedge funds on Wall Street, Tudor, DE Shaw and now Citadel, where he is director of fixed income studies. He has also been a senior fellow of the Peterson Institute for International Economics, the most important think-tank specialising in economics in the US.