Monex Europe | Recent meeting minutes and speeches have made it clear the FOMC is considering a range of possible calendar and outcome-based forward guidance. The likeliest outcome is further formalisation of the Fed’s shift away from viewing maximum employment as a constraint that will lead to rate hikes. Powell’s speech may provide a template for what outcome based guidance could look like.
Fed monetary policy
David Page, Head of Macro Research at AXA Investment Managers | Federal Reserve Chair Powell delivered the first shared address to a (virtual) Jackson Hole Monetary Conference. He delivered the conclusions of the Fed’s Monetary Policy Review, a process that was started in early 2019, and was due to be announced earlier this year, before the pandemic delayed the release. The Review maintained the broad pillars of Fed policy making: a dual mandate with employment and price stability goals, with price stability defined as 2% over the long term. However, it made three changes…
“If we analyse the data from the last 25 years, there is very little inflation. Underlying inflation in the US has never really fallen below 1% which means that the secular dynamism in the labour market is reducing inflation, via technology and globalisation,” explains Bruce Kasman, chief economist at JP Morgan.
In his first congressional testimony, Jerome Powell delivered an upbeat appraisal of the US economy. In his own words, headwinds have turned into tailwinds. While avoiding any commitment on the plausible monetary stance, markets have discounted a faster pace in rate hikes, pushing bond yields to fresh highs.
Benjamin Cole | The last filmy slips of fabric have been stripped away, and macroeconomists must now view the once-romanced US Congress in flagrante delicto with a real paramour: Mr. Big Bucks Deficits. From here, a premise of Federal Reserve monetary policy must be that it takes place alongside $1 trillion annual deficits.
The trend in inflation is confusing those in charge of monetary policy. After a significant uptick in the last part of 2017, it has really stagnated, in stark contrast with the growing dynamism of the economy.
The US economy has entered its ninth year of growth and the recovery could last over 10 years, clocking up a new record. At this stage the doubt surrounding an atypical recovery is whether the best thing is for the Fed to maintain its monetary policy of the last few months and continue to gradually raise interest rates, despite the absence of inflationary pressures.
José Luis M. Campuzano (Spanish Banking Association) | Citi flags that the US/Euro Area monetary conditions have noticeably narrowed since the start of the year. Financial conditions have relaxed in the US and tightened in the Eurozone mainly due to the trend in the relative exchange rate.
There is a 100% possibility that the Federal Reserve will raise rates today. As a result, the interest rate outlook won’t be the subject of debate and the interest, more than ever, will be on how the Fed is going to manage its balance sheet. What’s clear is that the Fed’s balance sheet will remain bigger than it was in the past.
Julius Sen, Academic Director at the London School of Economics thinks that “we have a flexible model. The market knows it and plays with it, forcing looser monetary policies and tight fiscal policies with the stability pact in Europe and the ‘sequester’ in the US. Sen claims that “there will be debt reliefs in some eurozone countries.”