european challenges

European Union

‘Sovereign Europe, hostile world: Five agendas to protect Europe’s capacity to act’

This detailed study is authored by experts Mark Leonard and Jeremy Shapiro, and examines how the EU and its member states can develop European and national-level policies to strengthen Europe’s resilience in the face of increasing geo-political competition. The report identifies five areas – healthcare, security and defence, technology, international economic policy, and action on climate change – where there is room for development.